HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia:
Objective To examine factors associated with HIVinfection among transgender women in Cambodia.
Design Cross-sectional study. Settings HIV high-burden sites including the capital city and 12 provinces. Participants This study included 1375 sexually active transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 7.1), recruited by using respondent-driven sampling for structured questionnaire interviews and rapid finger-prick HIV testing. Primary outcome measure HIV infection detected by using Determine antibody test. Results HIV prevalence among this population was 5.9%. After adjustment for other covariates, participants living in urban areas were twice as likely to be HIV infected as those living in rural areas. Participants with primary education were 1.7 times as likely to be infected compared with those with high school education. HIV infection increased with age; compared with those aged 18–24 years, the odds of being HIV infected were twice as high among transgender women aged 25–34 years and 2.8 times higher among those aged ≥35 years.
Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus.
Transsexuals experience themselves as being of the opposite sex, despite having the biological characteristics of one sex. A crucial question resulting from a previous brain study in male-to-female transsexuals was whether the reported difference according to gender identity in the central part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) was based on a neuronal difference in the BSTc itself or just a reflection of a difference in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation from the amygdala, which was used as a marker. Therefore, we determined in 42 subjects the number of somatostatin-expressing neurons in the BSTc in relation to sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, and past or present hormonal status.
Standards of care
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH)1 is an international,multidisciplinary, professional association whose mission is to promote evidence-based care,education, research, advocacy, public policy, and respect for transgender health. The vision ofWPATH is to bring together diverse professionals dedicated to developing best practices and supportive policies worldwide that promote health, research, education, respect, dignity, andequality for transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people in all cultural settings.
Transgender is not homosexuality.
The sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second semester of pregnancy, whichis, after the development of the genitals which differentiate in the second month of pregnancy. Because these two processes have different timetables, it could be that these are initiated through different pathways. Male gonads synthesize testosterone,
which can be converted into estrogen by aromatase in the brain. In humans, the exact mechanism of male and female brain development has still to be elucidated.